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Science Pseudoscience
Findings are communicated mostly through scientific journals that require peer reviews and uphold rigorous standards for honesty and accuracy. Goes straight to the media, with the goal of reaching the general public. Nothing is reviewed by peers. Facts are not verified. No one demands accuracy and precision. There are no standards.
Experiments must be described well enough for someone else to duplicate them and improve on them. Cannot reproduce or verify results. Experiments are described imprecisely and vaguely. Review may be strongly discouraged.
Failures are reviewed as closely as successes, because “incorrect theories can often make correct predictions by accident, but no correct theory will make incorrect predictions.” (Quackwatch) Failure is not an option and is avoided, rationalized, excused, hidden, even lied about.
Over time the accumulation of facts about the physical processes leads to a large body of knowledge. Nothing is learned. Knowledge does not advance. No one studies the physical phenomena or processes at work, or discovers any.
Convinces by showing the evidence and using arguments based on reasoning that is logical or mathematical. Takes time to present the best possible case with the available information. Abandons old ideas when the preponderance of new evidence contradicts the old. Appeals to faith and belief: tries to convert instead of convince. People believe in spite of the facts, not because of them. Clings to old ideas, even when new evidence overwhelmingly contradicts the old. No ideas are abandoned.
People try to disprove their hypotheses. People do not advocate or market unproven practices or products. People look only for what confirms their hypotheses, rather than what disproves the hypotheses. People earn most (or all) income by selling related books, courses, and services.

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Science Pseudoscience
Findings are communicated mostly through scientific journals that require peer reviews and uphold rigorous standards for honesty and accuracy. Goes straight to the media, with the goal of reaching the general public. Nothing is reviewed by peers. Facts are not verified. No one demands accuracy and precision. There are no standards.
Experiments must be described well enough for someone else to duplicate them and improve on them. Cannot reproduce or verify results. Experiments are described imprecisely and vaguely. Review may be strongly discouraged.
Failures are reviewed as closely as successes, because “incorrect theories can often make correct predictions by accident, but no correct theory will make incorrect predictions.” (Quackwatch) Failure is not an option and is avoided, rationalized, excused, hidden, even lied about.
Over time the accumulation of facts about the physical processes leads to a large body of knowledge. Nothing is learned. Knowledge does not advance. No one studies the physical phenomena or processes at work, or discovers any.
Convinces by showing the evidence and using arguments based on reasoning that is logical or mathematical. Takes time to present the best possible case with the available information. Abandons old ideas when the preponderance of new evidence contradicts the old. Appeals to faith and belief: tries to convert instead of convince. People believe in spite of the facts, not because of them. Clings to old ideas, even when new evidence overwhelmingly contradicts the old. No ideas are abandoned.
People try to disprove their hypotheses. People do not advocate or market unproven practices or products. People look only for what confirms their hypotheses, rather than what disproves the hypotheses. People earn most (or all) income by selling related books, courses, and services.
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